History of the Lithuanian Nation | True Lithuania
True Lithuania


Lithuanians (85% of Lithuania's population) are among the European ethnicities living in their current location for the longest, their forefathers having arrived 2000 BC at the latest. However, the story of the Lithuanian nation is that of extreme odds against them and spectacular revivals.

The first major threat was the Crusaders as Lithuanians were the largest remaining pagan nation in Europe. Lithuanians successfully defended their lands in alliance with Poland (15th century) but still adopted Christianity. Lithuanians thus avoided the Germanization that assimilated the Prussian culture after the Crusader conquest.

The next threat to Lithuanians came peacefully from the Polish culture. Poland became the center of new Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Lithuanian-speakers were more and more relegated to peasantry whereas the nobility adopted Polish language and ways of life.

The end of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth brought little hope as the new ruler – Russian Empire - banned Lithuanian language altogether. It was, however, under these harsh conditions that the Lithuanian national revival started, giving birth to an independent Lithuanian nation-state in 1918.

After a brief period of freedom the Soviet occupation began. Hundreds of thousands of Lithuanians were exiled to Siberia by the Soviets, including women and small children (many never to return, some not even surviving the initial "journey" in cattle trains). Additional hundreds of thousands were simply killed in this Stalin-led genocide. Vast formerly Lithuanian areas were completely Russified with both the population and placenames replaced (especially in Lithuania Minor).

This history forged the Lithuanian ethnic group. Having suffered a great loss of life and culture at the hands of foreign nations, Lithuanians seek that this plight would be acknowledged by the world.

Most Lithuanians would mention these among their key historical facts: the defiance of Christian crusaders (13rd-15th centuries), the book smugglers (1863-1904), the Soviet occupation and genocide (1940-1941, 1944-1990) and the non-violent successful freedom struggle, epitomized in the 1989 Baltic Way human chain

Stereotypically, Lithuanians are considered (and consider themselves) to be envious. Another common belief among Lithuanian men is that Lithuanian women are among the prettiest in the world, while Lithuanian beer and Lithuanian basketball are among the world's best. Lithuanian folk songs and the art of cross-making are recognized by UNESCO.

Beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage whereas Lithuanian cuisine includes the famous potato dumplings cepelinai, various meat, bread, and potato dishes.

Genetically Lithuanians are the most similar to Latvians, Estonians, and Finns, all four nations sharing the same dominant DNA haplogroup (N1c). They have fair skin, more than 80% have light-colored eyes and many have light-colored hair (a stereotypical Lithuanian is thus blue-eyed blonde, even though such people are a minority). Lithuanians are among the tallest people of the world (this maybe explains their affinity for basketball), with an average male height of 1,81 cm.

Lithuania and some surrounding areas in modern-day Russia, Poland, Belarus, and Latvia are the traditional heartlands of the Lithuanian nation (with some 2,7 million Lithuanians living in the area). However, emigration has been rampant since the 19th century. Hundreds of thousands of Americans, Brazilians and Argentines have Lithuanian ancestry, while post-1990s trends of emigration lead primarily to the United Kingdom, Ireland, Norway, and Spain.

It is difficult to say how many Lithuanians live in these countries as many people of Lithuanian heritage there are intermixed and no longer consider themselves Lithuanians nor follow the Lithuanian culture. If considering only those for whom being Lithuanian is more than just family history, there may be ~600 000 Lithuanians in the USA and Canada, ~500 000 in Western Europe, ~50 000 in the former Soviet Union (excluding Latvia and Belarus), ~25 000 in Latin America, ~10 000 in Australia. As the emigration to Western Europe was more recent, Lithuanians there tend to speak Lithuanian and still keep contacts many relatives in Lithuania, while the young Lithuanian-Americans, Lithuanian-Australians or Lithuanians from the former Soviet Union often do not.

Cepelinai meal, folk songs, Lithuanian basketball and the art of cross making are among the most potent symbols of the Lithuanian nation. ©Augustinas Žemaitis.

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  1. Dear sir my people are polish Lithuanian we are nobility without title
    In northwest poland and lithuania bylostak area even though our name sounds more polish my other family are german czech and italian

  2. A few things are wrong about this article. It completely omits the major participation of Lithuanians in killing Jews during the Holocaust. Before the Nazis even entered the then capital, Kaunas, the Lithuanians were already rounding up Jews and killing them in the town square by swinging metal bars at the heads and bodies while on-lookers cheered with one Lithuanian climbed on the pile of bodies and played the Lithuanian national anthem while the crowd sang the song.

    On a completely lighter note, I do agree that Lithuanian women are the prettiest in the entire word. However, Lithuanian beer sucks big time. Yes, the basketball is very good, but I really don’t give a rat’s ass about it. Lithuanian folk songs and the art of cross-making could be dismissed as being dull and boring. As far as Lithuanian cuisine is concerned, the infamous potato dumplings cepelinai are just that – infamous. They’re nasty globs. Best is the Lithuanian bread and the cold beet soup! YUM!

    • This is a very short (11-paragraph-long) introduction to Lithuanians and what makes them different from other ethnic groups.

      The anti-Lithuanian canard you mention (regarding the „Nazi Lithuanians“) is thoroughly analyzed here: https://www.truelithuania.com/did-lithuania-support-the-nazi-germany-during-ww2-9872

      The full story of ethnic relations in Lithuania over the centuries (without either downplaying something or taking something out of context) is analyzed in a book-long article here: https://www.truelithuania.com/ethnic-relations-6272

      Clearly, neither the anti-Lithuanian canards, nor any (in)famous Lithuanian criminals, nor the entire history of ethnic relations in Lithuania is possibly explained in a short introduction to Lithuanians as an ethnic group (but all these issues are indeed mentioned in the other parts of the website).

      As for other things you mention, this short introduction mentioned them based on their popularity and worldwide recognition (e.g. cross-crafting is recognized by UNESCO as world heritage), rather than a subjective appeal, which, naturally, varies from one person to another.

  3. What the fuck is wrong with you?

  4. The incompetent are often blessed with an inappropriate confidence, buoyed by something (opinion?) that feels to them like knowledge. David Dunnings, Professor, Cornell U.

    Excellent piece. Great summary, well written about the Lithuanian heritage. Also a great website I visit often researching family background and history. I hope to visit Vilkaviskis again next summer.
    JAV Lietuvis

  5. My great uncle was named Juozas Patrikonis and he lived in a house in Scotland with Antony Ziamajtis. I think my uncle and Antony were from Miraslavas, Lithuania. You name looks like Antony’s. Are you from that area?

    • His original surname must have been Žemaitis. However, this is a popular surname all over Lithuania. My family does not come from that area.

      • My last name is Blauzdis..do You know how I would go about to find information about them..I am 72 my grandparents, uncles and my Dad and aunt have passed I have no one to ask..my email address is ::::bobbiejb25@gmail.com

        Thank You for any help


        • We may offer you Lithuanian archive search services, depending on how much you already know. We may contact you by e-mail.

          • I love lithuanian culture, I have many of their traits such as been reserved, shy, love education, polite, and open up to only close friends. The more i read about the culture the more I love, for instance how resilient lithuanians are through time even preserving their language longer than any other in Europe! Im a proud granddaughter of Lithuanian woman who had to start life in a complete different place to escape the famine brought by wwII and here I am doing similar, Im also an immigrant who met my husband after starting life in a new place much like my grandmother. Coincidence? Perhaps genes are manifesting. I want to continue learning about the culture and perhaps one day learn this beautiful language and visit the country of infinite lakes and forests!!!

          • How about the last name yuknus

      • My grandmother’s name was Lidja Mustaitiene or st like that. She went to Brazil around wwII times. Any idea where she might be from? I tried researching variations of the name but it doesnt seem common. Thank you.

  6. My great grandparents emigrated from Lithuania to Scotland, early in the last century. They did so to work in the mines there. After a few short years, they emigrated to just south of Pittsburgh, Pa. where my grandmother was born. Thank you for your article, as it has been difficult for me to learn much of this part of my heritage. I often wondered why I am the only blond haired, blue eyed, six footer plus in the entire family. Thanks to you, now I know!

    • my great grandmother visited just south of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania in Homestead and was baptized in Saint peters and Saint Paul’s Church in Pittsburgh in 1905. Her last name was Vabuolas and my other side was Santaras. There are also a few Zekonis’ in the family. Are you related to any of those?

  7. I live in Pennsylvania. …my grandmother’s maiden name was…Meskauskas..first name Anastasia

  8. Hello! My maternal Grandmother’s grandparents from both sides were from Lithuania and immigrated to the USA. The two last names I know are Princekavich (I have also seen it spelt Prinskavich) and Kuras. Where would you suggest I do digging to find more information? Specifically about the Kuras side as I don’t know much about them.

    • We may offer search services at the Lithuanian archives (or, if you would visit Lithuania, you may go there yourself). There, birth, death, marriage, passport data, and other such data exist about the lives of emigrants which they had here in Lithuania.

  9. hello — I am seeking any TUTLYS family-members, originally from Pavingrupiai, Marijampole County, Lithuania. How would I contact a local newspaper (or TV station) to post a family-search message? — thank you.

  10. Hello again,
    I am learning so much from your website! Thank you. If the surname is Zūnūte for a single female, what would the male equivalent be?

    • If the single female’s last name is Zūnutė, then the father’s/brother’s last name would have been Zūnus (and mother’s – Zūnienė). This surname does not seem to exist in Lithuania today (or is extremely rare), although in one dialect “Zūnus” means “Weak”, so, in theory, it may have been a surname (and the kind of surname somebody may have changed later, as the laws allowed to change surnames that “have a disrespectful meaning”). That said, it is also possible the name was altered during emigration. E.g. the originals may have been Zauniūtė and Zaunius, respectively.

  11. Hello! I am looking for any information regarding the last name Spudis.. first name Anthony. He left Lithuania in the early 1900’s. Any information you can provide would be greatly appreciated! Thank you for all you do!

  12. Hi, my last name is Lithuanian and I was wondering if anyone had any information on its origins or my family history. My great great grandfather came from Lithuania to America in the early 1900s his name was Anton Zopelis.

  13. My Fathers side came from Lithuania through Ellis Island. They settled in Queens, New York City. They are very secretive about family history beyond that. My Great Great Father was Kazimieras Zudzius or Zudzis. Grandmother maiden name was Anna Jouzapaitis. I enjoy the stories and information here. I am a Blue-eyed, dark brown haired, 6’2” Lithuanian-American.🇺🇸

  14. I enjoyed reading this article. My maternal grandfather came to the u.s through Ellis Island, and settled in Queens and later Brooklyn. The anglicized form of his name was Zukas. My maternal grandmother was Polish. I am blond haired and green eyed and decently tall 5’6”. I believe my Grandfather came to the U.S. in the early 30’s but it may have been a bit earlier than that. About 6 years ago I went to Finland with my husband, who had business meetings there and travelled to Estonia by ferry, and thought wow, these people look a lot like me, and I see that both those countries are related genetically to Lithuanians. We were only there for a few days and I hope to one day make the journey back to see Lithuania and Poland.

  15. Hello, any Ziggas family out there??

  16. Hello, I am looking for information on the last name Peskus.

    Also, my great-grandfather listed his original village as Udriaus, Lithuania on multiple immigration documents yet no such town seems to exist (possibly a name change). My great-grandmother was from Rudamina.

  17. Hello, where could I find more information about any ” Vosylius” family information. My grandmother, grandfather, father and his sisters came to USA in 1949 (Ellis Island) and settled in Illinois. Their move was assisted by a Father Yunker (St. Vincent Catholic Church).

    • If you want to learn about the family history before emigration, we may search the Lithuanian archives, if needed. We will contact you by e-mail with our offer.

      • Greetings, I would like to know how much it would cost for you to help me find my Grandfathers Lithuanian name.
        Thank you

        • The possibilities depend on what you already know about him. Do you know his anglicized name, where did he immigrate to / from, at what approximate dates, etc.?

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