True Lithuania
True Lithuania

The largest English website on Lithuania

Lithuania is Vilnius, the 15th century capital of what was then Europe's largest country.

Lithuania is four seasons of lush forests, countless lakes and magnificent coastal dunes of Neringa, sculpted by the wind, not by "Private property" signs.

Lithuania is the inspiring Hill of Crosses, a unique-in-the-world place where millions of people have been building Christian symbols despite any persecutions.

Lithuania is the geographic centre of Europe where the old Lithuanian ethnicity has been joined over the centuries by numerous other communities. There are centuries-old religious buildings of more than 10 communities as distinct as Roman Catholicism, Sunni Islam, Judaism and the Russian Old Believer sect.

Lithuania is a robust economy where the scars left by the Soviet Union may be investigated without ever having to do without modern western amenities.

Tourist? Expatriate? Researcher? Having roots in Lithuania? This website is for you.


Vilnius - the 15th century capital of Europe's largest state





History & Today


Famous Lithuanians


Politics and law


National symbols

FAQ on Lithuania explaining common misconceptions





Holidays and Celebrations

Lithuanian diaspora


Art and literature




Theater and Cinema


Beautiful nature

Castles and fortresses


Religious sites



Top 10 lists






Lithuania Minor

Environs of Lithuania






Accomodation and food


Lithuanian citizenship restoration

Warnings and Dangers
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  1. Dear Sir:
    I am trying to locate information, documents and / or photos of two (2) of my aunts that worked and lived in Lithuanian. The first is Josephine Magdalene Rakauskas who was born in 1894 and at 18 years in 1912 joined the Sisters of Saint Casimir and became Sister Anna Marie). In 1920 she was one of a group of Sisters led by Mother Maria Kaupas (Sisters Anna Marie, Angela, Immaculata and Catherine) to establish an order of the Sisters of St. Casimir in Kaunas. They did establish a home/monastery in the building know as the Camaldolese Monastery, now know as the Pazaislis. Sister Anna Marie returned to the U.S. remained a Sister of St. Casimir until her death in 1989 in Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    The second aunt was Marijona (Mariona) E. Rakauskaite who was invited in 1920 by the Lithuanian National Opera in to sing with that group. She made her debut with the LNO in 1923 in George Bizet’s opera Carmen in the title role as Carmen. Mariona was a companion of Liudas Truikys the noted opera theater set designer. There is a museum in Kaunas dedicated to them.
    I enjoyed you we site and foud it most interesting and I learned many mor things about Lithuania, land of my ancestors. I am hoping to visit Lithuania and Italy as they are the homes of my Lithuanian and Italian ancestors. I am lucky to have such a rich cultural heritage.

    Sincerely, Alfred F. Tenuta, Jr., adopeted name (birth name Peter Paul Rakauskas,
    CW3 Army of the United States, Retired

    • Thank you for comment. I think your quest at locating the information certainly won’t be that hard if you will come to Lithuania and visit the said museum as well as the Pažaislis monastery (current nuns there have no connection to the historical ones I think but they would lead you on the right direction). This is by the way the article on the Žaliakalnis borough of Kaunas where the museum is located at and where most of pre-WW2 Kaunas artists lived at (and now there are several memorial museums and many memorial plaques).

      • Dear Augustinas:

        Are there any libraries or museums dedicated to the “Lithuanian Book Smugglers”. My grandfathers (Pranziscus Rakauakas) brother Mykloas Rakauskas was a “Book Smuggler” at the age of 16 and had to leave Lithuania in 1888 with the Czar’s police on his heels. I would appreciate any information on the “Book Smugglers”.

        • There is a book smuggler museum (knygnešių muziejus) in Ustronė hamlet near Krekenava (Panevėžys district municipality) – click here. It is open by appointment (phone numbers available at the link), I wouldn’t be too surprised if nobody speaks English there (I haven’t been there myself). The farmstead where it is located was used by book smugglers to hide illegal press. A few knygnešiai stories are also presented in other museums, such as AB spaustuvė in Kaunas suburbs (also open by appointment), maybe also Museum of Lithuanian litearture in Kaunas Old Town. There have been a couple of films made about the knygnešiai and numerous books, though the books are in Lithuanian language.

  2. This is a truly good website. Keep it up! 🙂

    Nusiunčiau draugei iš Amerikos, kuri labai domisi Lietuva, tai šis tinklalapis pats tas! Ačiū. 🙂

  3. I can’t seem to find this village anywhere. It was called both of these names, Kuloryny and Kulesgny.

    Also I cannot find Lidzianka on a map.

    Is there a Ledrianka in Lithuania?

    Any help would be appreciated!!


    • Hello. Vilages by these names indeed does not exist in Lithuania, these names are not Lithuanian. However throughout Lithuanian history Lithuania was occupied by various powers and in different languages the names of the same localities were different. Some names (Kuloryny, Kulesgny) sound like they might be Slavic versions of some Lithuanian names. Which part of Lithuania they should be in? Also take note that Lithuania once encompassed much larger area than it does today. What was once regarded to be a Lithuanian land may now as well be in Belarus, Ukraine, Poland or Russia. For instance, a google search finds “Ledianka” (one letter difference from Ledrianka) in Ukraine.

    • In searching around, I found that Lidzianka means “lives in Lida”. There is a Lida, Poland.

  4. Hello Augustinas! I have enjoyed your site so much and really appreciate the effort you have put into it. I plan to travel to Lithuania in about a year and a half to search out my ancestors and your site will be my main guide. I want to see the land of my ancestors. My grandmother, Anna Abartus (or Abartis) (born in 1895) left in about 1910 to escape from the Russians. She had aided her father, known as Red Beard Abartus who was a revolutionary in hiding, and was therefore known to the Russians and so she had to escape. She went to Canada. I think she was only 15 or 16 at the time and met my grandfather Leon Buta, from Lithuania as well. With everyone in my family gone now, I only have snippits to follow. Have you ever heard of such a story? Many kind regards, Brenda

    • Hello Brenda. I have not heard such story myself. It would help you if you’d know locations (towns) from where your forefathers immigrated from as you could talk to people there, check the church archives. If by “revolutionary” you mean “communist/bolshevist” then chances are that your great grandfather would be mentioned somewhere in Soviet history books (in general there were few communists in Lithuania but the Soviet propaganda (after the 1940 occupation) sought to show it as if there were many, therefore almost every single one was mentioned). However, take note that names might be memorized differently in Lithuania. Before 1918 independence there was no universal Lithuanian orthography meaning that immigrant names would be transcribed rather randomly in America (see e.g. this article). E.g. Anna and Leon are not Lithuanian names (Ona and Leonas are). Abartis and Buta (Būta) are Lithuanian surnames and they are quite uncommon therefore you may tell your story to people with these surnames you could find online (e.g. Facebook).

  5. Thank you Augustinas! My great grandfather was definitely not a communist!!! He was a teacher who refused to stop teaching in the Lithuanian language when it was forbidden to do so by the Russians. The only story I know of regarding location is that he was hiding in the hills on the Russian controlled side and in the closest town, the divide was down the middle of a street so that Lituanians could go to the shops on both sides but not out the back of the shops on the Russian side, if that makes sense… My grandmother braved the divide and got through to warn her father but she was seen by the Russians and so had to escape overseas. That’s the story. Thank you for telling me about the fact that the surnames are uncommon…I hope I can find where my grandmother lived. I have a photo of the family after she left as they all stood before a thatched roof home. Funny, isn’t it, the attraction to roots. Kind regards, Brenda

    • I truly apologise for the wrong interpretation, I took the wrong impression that in English language the word “revolutionary” is used primarilly for various radical militant far left politicians, e.g. F. Castro. If your given year of emigration is correct and this was not World War 1 then there are fewer possible locations as this was probably on boundary of Russian-occupied Lithuania and German-contolled Lithuania Minor, and there were two nearby cities/towns on both sides? In theory it could also be the boundary of Russian-occupied Lithuania and Russian-occupied Latvia as in Latvia there were less restrictions on languages despite the Russian Imperial rule (but this is probably less likely).

      • Yes, I used the wrong word. Perhaps resistance fighter would be more appropriate 🙂

        Yes, my dates are correctly set before WWI. Do you know the names of the towns where I could start looking based on my story?

        I don’t even know where to look for a map that would show me the borders of the occupations that you have noted….

        You are kind to help.

        • Click here for a map of interwar Lithuania. The territory marked “Rytprūsiai” was East Prussia both before and after WW1 (until WW2 when it was annexed by Russia). Also three regions immediately north of “Rytprūsiai” used to be part of Germany until WW1 but were part of Lithuania in 1923-1939. These are the regions centered in Klaipėda, Šilutė and Pagėgiai. I wouldn’t dare to guess exact towns as I don’t know exact size, but K. Naumiestis/Širvinta may have been possible (sadly Širvinta is no more: it was completely destroyed by Russians in World War 2 an not rebuilt; K. Naumiestis still exists).

          • that is very sad…I have no idea what all of you went through. I was protected in Canada

            Thank you Augustinas

          • Thank you for sharing the link. I can’t read French personally so can’t comment on the website though

          • Hi Augustinas

            I’ve done a bit more research and I think my great grandfather may have been involved in moving Lithuanian language books into Russian controlled Lithuania from Lithuania minor before 1904 when they were allowed to be used again…I think that is the border that our family story refers to. I’m wondering if you wouldn’t mind contacting me through my gmail account so I can give more detail and ask some more personal questions? Many many thanks, brenda

          • I have contacted you by e-mail

  6. labas,

    I am very much interested in the area of Beinoraiciai also known as Beinoraiciu, my grandfather was born there in1892. During that time, what was the land like, what would people have done for a living? What would of made my grandfather leave there in 1913?

    • Hello. For introduction I suggest reading our page on the Lithuanian history (click here), especially the chapters on 1795-1918 Russian Imperial rule and 1918-1940 independence to better understand the era and its aspirations.

      Basically Russians decided to leave Lithuania as an undeveloped agricultural land due to its border proximity. At the time your grandfather was born the Lithuanian language was still banned and Catholics persecuted by the Russian government but by ~1904 it was forced to soften these policies. By 1913 independence movement was already in a full swing although only World War 1 allowed to finally win freedom, which was after 1913 (perhaps your grandfather would have participated in pro-Lithuanian protests in the USA ~1918 as many Lithuanian Americans did at the time, (click here for one picture of such protest)). Most Lithuanians of 1910s were peasants and would grow food for living. Beinoraičiai village (the one near Pakruojis I assume) was not much different from the major part of rural Lithuania.

  7. Labas,

    Thank you so much, the articles have helped me so much to understand Lithuanian history. My grandfather came to the US and joined the Army and went back and fought for the Lithuanians.

    In Aug. of 2012 I traveled to Beinoraicai, it is a beautiful part of Lithuania, so i would guess that it is pretty much like it was when he lived there.

    I love your website, so happy to have found it.

    • Thank you. Lithuanian nature indeed still looks the same. The people, their aspirations and lifestyle differ however. Back in 1910s nearly all Lithuanians who live in Lithuania were peasants/villagers, deeply religious, had many children and would make many things (some clothes, furniture) inside family rather than buy. As Russia left Lithuania undeveloped choosing an urban life meant emigration (whether to Riga, St. Petersburg or Chicago). Many emigrants of that era would however return and invest their money into land; to inherit the father’s land and expand it used to be the aspiration for many. Today it is different with urban life being more prestigious and villagers viewed in dismay by some; the youth leave the villages hoping never to return. Like in the USA technology was one of the drives for this change. However another drive was the Soviet occupation when nearly all land was nationalized and the land-owning peasants killed or expelled, religion attacked. Urbanization rate increased from 30 to 70 percent as more emphasis was put on heavy industry while the productivity of agriculture suffered as people no longer a bond to the land when it was not even theirs; some would get addicted to alcohol which is still a problem in villages. After independence restoration the land was returned to descendants, however, many of them now live elsewhere and are no longer farmers, therefore they sell or rent the land. This Soviet era also greatly villages architecturally with many old homes destroyed and new ones built on standard plain designs (including apartment blocks which never previously existed in villages).

  8. I have enjoyed your website very much. It is quite interesting to read the history and how it has influenced what is occuring today. I am only begining to research my Lithuanian grandparents emingration to Chicago in 1912. I am looking for possible directed readings specifically coverings the economy of Lithuania ~1890 to 1912. I am trying to determine possible motiviation factors for their emigration. My grandfather was a construction engineer(according to family lore) and founded a construction company shortly after arriving in Chicago.

  9. Thank you so much for your help. I was able to contact the Lithuanian Archives, hopefully they will be able to find some information for me.


  10. What a fascinating website, really inspired me to visit Vilnius.

  11. Great Site! I love Lithuania! All my people are from the Panevezys area. I think your site is the BEST for Lithuania. No BS. No Hype. Just pertinent information. Your’s is my default site for all things Lithuanian. Please keep up the good work. I know it’s not easy keeping up a site this informative. With Much appreciation, Paul Alencikas

  12. Labas,

    I am reading a book on genealogy, and it talks about first name patterns in Scotland and Italy. I was wondering if you know of a pattern in the Lithuanian Culture, so many of my family names repeat. This could help in my research.

    1st son Father’s Father
    2nd son Mother’s Father
    3rd son Father
    4th son Father’s Brother
    1st daughter Mother’s mother
    2nd daughter Father’s mother
    3rd daughter Mother
    4th daughter Mother’s sister


    • Hello,

      To my knowledge there weren’t such all-encompassing traditions in Lithuania. Instead, tradition depended on family and location. One quite popular historic tradition (but never universal) would be to name a child after one of the grandparents. In some families one of the sons may have been traditionally named after father.

  13. Labas,

    Thank you for clearing that up for me.

    Do you know of any other way than going through the Natiional Archives to find information on families. I have worked with them for a few years now, and the person who I am working with is not very helpfull. The people in the past would ask questions and they would find the information for me, this person wants exact dates and places, if I had that information, I would not be asking. Should I ask for a new person, or is there any other recourse I can take.


    You have been so helpful, Thank you again

    • Thank you,

      Of course, you can try to ask to contact another person. Whether this will succeed I don’t know, a lot depends on institution. “Soviet work ethics” are still quite common in the state institutions – under the Soviet occupation career prospects were largely independent of merit or work results, so the common work culture became to dodge as much work as possible (unless e.g. a friend asked to do it). That said, not every state institution employee is like that, but what you told in the recent post reminds me of this situation.

      By the way, I am a lawyer in Lithuanian Bar Association, so if you’d need legal services you can use our law firm – we could contact the archives in Lithuanian language in official way, perhaps the communication in Lithuanian will be more fruitful and would be received by different employees (the last time I called State Archives the person was helpful, but, of course, there are many employees). If you are interested, contact me by e-mail .

      Of course, there is never a guarantee that particular information will be in the archives – some wooden churches have burnt down (destroying the birth and marriage records) and so on.

      • Labas Augustinas,

        What you mentioned in your blog sounds exactly like what is happening with my requests.

        Thank you very much for your offer of help. I am going to gather all my information on my family and I will contact your office.


    • I have a cousin in Vilnius, who is a consulting geneologist – Vilus Botyrius
      Tell him, Tom sent you.

  14. i would like to learn the language and track my dad’s parents all are dead now so where can i start. my parents divorced when i was a toddler then never saw my dad much after. thx

    • It is the best to learn as much as you could from what you have: that is, from live people who remember these dead people and documents / things you may find at your home or their home. The names, places of birth, times of birth, times of marriage, spouse names (of your father’s relatives), etc. are especially useful. With this info one could search the archives. As for the language various diaspora institutions offer courses of Lithuanian language or may help you find a teacher – contact the nearest Lithuanian organization (the local chapter of Lithuanian community, etc.). Global True Lithuania website may help you find local Lithuaian institutions.

  15. Thank Augustinas for your hard work and dedication.
    1 comment I want to make to help some of those researching their relatives .
    As you have mentioned get as much actual documentation as possible.But there is a very large disappointing factor that will sometimes come to bear.those stories you heard thru your childhood many years ago may have been just an embellishment and not the actual truth.

  16. I found your website and am a consistent user. My maternal grandparents were from Lithuania and migrated in 1908 and 1910. My wife and I visited for 8 days in September and we left promising to return. Thanks for your website it reminds us of what we saw and hope to at a future time

  17. My Great, great grandmother’s last name was Stokus. is that a Lithuanian last name? I was told she came to the US from Lithuania. ALso, I was given Butkas as a last name too. are either of these Lithuanian? Thank You

    • “Butkas” surname does not exist in Lithuania, however surname “Butkus” does, so maybe your forefathers had their last name altered, with “Butkus” the original version. The original version may also have been “Butkevičius” as it was popular to drop Polish-inspired long endings and change them by short Lithuanian ones instead (such as “as”).

      There are people with surname “Stokus” in Lithuania, although its rare.

  18. I am trying to find out more about my great and great great grandparents who were born in Lithuania. My great grandmother was named Susannah Shemukenas and she was the daughter of Anna Vedderis (I do not have her father’s name). She was born in a place called Ezushula, which I cannot find on a map or on the internet. Susannah married a man named Joesph Ciroski but I believe that is the Polish version of his surname. They immigrated to the USA in 1902 through the port of Riga.

  19. Thank you. This is very helpful.

  20. What a great website. We will be visiting Lithuania in September and would love to meet up with relatives. Do you have a recommendation of a specific researcher at the State Archives with contact information. My grandmother, Stephania Asporas, came from Birzai around 1907. Thank you for your help.

    • Thanks. Usually the State Archives should be contacted directly as an institution and they can do a search for a fee. However, we may provide the services of:
      1.Contacting the archives in Lithuanian.
      2.Consulting on what documents will be needed.
      3.Reconstructing the likely information before the archive search (as, for example, city, town and personal names are often changed in US documents so knowledge of Lithuanian is needed to guess what were the original names).
      4.Other consulting regarding what, where and when to search.

      If needed, you may contact at .

  21. Hello, my name is Debbie Smith. I am living in hope that I may find my Great Grandfathers family. His name was John August Herman Boyer. The spelling of Boyer over the years has altered I believe but still unsure of original spelling. (Borya, Boyar)

    The only details that I have are these: –

    John August Herman Boyer (spelling variations)
    Born 1849, unknown as to where born
    Was last known in Memel (now Klaipedia) in c1874 when he left and emigrated overseas. He finally arrived in New Zealand c1874 – 1875.

    All I know is that his father (no known name) was a Bricklayer. This was noted on J A H Boyer’s Death Cert.

    There is No Mothers or Fathers names mentioned anywhere in any documents, nor do they offer up any other information about locations or siblings. I am sadly at a loss and there is no other recourse here for me. Hence I am writing in ‘hope’ of absolutely any assistance, please.

    I was fortunate to have a fellow friend search on Ancestry and below is all she could tell me.
    Quote `I can’t find anything for him particularly. But when I searched ‘Borya’ in the Lithuanian records it turned up several Bauers, all from Kaunas. Also some Boyars, again from Kaunas. A few from Vilnius, but not many. Klaipėda is coastal, so that may have been the point of embarkation rather than where he lived?’ unquote.

    I would very much appreciate any assistance going forward and so grateful for your time, ‘please’…

    Many, many thanks in advance

    Kindest regards

    Debbie S Smith

    • Hi. By search on Ancestry do you mean In general, archive search would be more definite as far from everything is available online, especially from outside USA. That said, the situation is not that easy as very little is known. Klaipėda may be an anchor, however as I understand it is not known how much time he spent there (whether years or a day); as Klaipėda was back then controlled by Germany while Vilnius and Kaunas by Russia it is also possible that he would have went from other German-held cities such as Koenigsberg. In such cases its somewhat hit-or-miss affair, but if there is luck it is possible to find something in archives.

      • Hi Augustinas, thank you so much for your reply. Your suggestions and info is appreciated. Yes, it seems for me a needle in a hay stack kind of search. The person here in New Zealand who looked up on the and posted to me the info I quoted previously for you to read, does a lot of genealogy. And that was all they could help me with.

        I am very curious though in regards to the name Boyar/Boyer/Borya etc.. A version or the versions of the spelling/s, are they very common to the area’s in Kaunas, or Vilnius? Not being able to access phone books from those area’s myself, I was just wondering if you may know, or have the ability to look at the phone book directory’s. Only of course if this is not to time consuming of you. I’m only asking if there maybe a small or large concentration of the name/s in area/s there.. If there is an online directory, I would look, but I probably wouldn’t know what I was looking at as I only speak and read English…tsk.
        If you know of any English written directory there in the area’s, that would be amazing if you could advise me.. Such huge thanks!!

        kind regards, Debbie

        • See this website. Type in surname at the field “Pavardė, vardas” and type in city at the field “Miestas”, then press “Ieškoti” on the right.

          In general, the existance of people with such surname now is doubtful. This is not a Lithuanian surname. He may have been a German, in which case it is likely the family was destroyed or expelled in the Soviet Genocide (see article “Germans of Lithuania“). Or the original surname may have been non-German and now the family may have a Lithuanian surname. “Bajoras” is something that quickest come to mind, but it is just a shot. Also, when searching I suggest replacing “y” with “j” as that is how this sound is written in Lithuanian, and also try adding Lithuanian endings such as “as” and “is”.

          • Thank you ever so much Augustinas… I will follow your instructions and visit the webpage, thank you… 🙂
            your wonderful..

            sincere regards, Debbie

          • Thank you ever so much Augustinas… I will follow your instructions and visit the webpage, thank you… 🙂
            your wonderful..

        • Debbie/Augustinas;
          I have ancestors, i.e. my grandmother was Katarina Boteriute, with the family name Botyrius from the Mariampole area of Suvalki. My great-aunt Ona, is listed on the manifest of the ship “Czar” departing Libau (Latvia) October 15, 1912, as Anna Batyr.
          Batyr is a Tatar name, and these ancestors came from Crimea, recruited by Vitautas the Great in the 1400’s. My great-grandmother’s maiden name was Totorius, which obviously means “Tatar”.
          I know the Golden Horde was ruled by Batu Khan, and I have seen this “Bat” root in other names, which leads me to believe it has a meaning like “brave warrior”. I would like to learn more about Tatar migration into the GDL.
          I should add that accompanying my great-aunt on the voyage was her nephew listed as Stanislaus Stankewicz, the Polish spelling. Obviously, they are hiding their Lithuanian identities. Most Lithuanian left the country and sailed from Hamburg and such. They sailed from Russia.
          Appreciate any comments.

  22. Hi Augustinas. I am not able to find where my great grandfather came from on line. It states the area as Vilna (Wilno) and then specifically Kagaschin. It is in cursive writing and spelled twice. No search comes up with it. Any suggestions? He spoke Polish and i believe was of Catholic descent. Was there a place called Kagaschin in Wilno? Thanks in advance!

    • I must add that the year of the document was 1913.

      • It should be noted that “Vilna” maybe means the “Governorate of Vilnius”, which was a terrritorial unit of thr Russian Empire that encompassed parts of the modern Belarus (most people there were Polish speakers of Lithuanian descent who switched the languages over centuries, see article “Poles of Lithuania“). So, the locality may be in today’s Lithuania or Belarus and the name is likely somewhat sifferent. I amnot sure exactly, it would help id you know a more precise area.

  23. Kaip tau anis Augustinas.
    My grand farther came to the US in 1910 his parents were German he was born
    in 1889 near Kaunas his father owned a grain mill. how would I find information on
    if the mill still exist today.the family name is Lindau and his given name is Adolf he had brothers Robert,William,Karsis ? on spelling. the Lithuanian Monks here in
    Kennebunk,Maine speak a different Lithuanian.